Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with Birch’s audited financial statements and notes thereto included in the Form 8-K filed by Fusion with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on May 10, 2018. The December 31, 2017 balance sheet information included herein was derived from the audited financial statements of Birch as of that date. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with US GAAP for interim financial information, the instructions for Form 10-Q and the rules and regulations of the SEC. Accordingly, since they are interim statements, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all of the information and notes required by US GAAP for annual financial statements, but reflect all adjustments consisting of normal, recurring adjustments, that are necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented. Management believes that the disclosures made in these unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements are adequate to make the information not misleading. Reclassifications for the transfer of certain assets from intangibles to property and equipment have been made to the prior period consolidated financial statements to conform to the current presentation
Principles of Consolidation
The financial statements include the accounts of the Company and each of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these financial statements requires management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results may differ substantially from these estimates. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year or any other future periods.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which discrete financial information is available and evaluated regularly by a company's chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company has only one reportable segment – Business Services.
The Company recorded a notes receivable of $25.0 million in conjunction with the Vector Facility (as herein defined) and is classified as other non-current assets on its balance sheet as of September 30, 2018. See note 13 for additional information relating to the Vector Facility.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying value of certain financial instruments such as accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, approximates their fair values due to their short term nature.
The accounting and reporting requirements with respect to accounting for income taxes require an asset and liability approach. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed for differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities that will result in future taxable or deductible amounts, based on enacted tax laws and rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred income tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
In accordance with U.S. GAAP, the Company is required to determine whether a tax position of the Company is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the applicable taxing authority, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit to be recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. De-recognition of a tax benefit previously recognized could result in the Company recording a tax liability that would reduce net assets.
The Company recognizes expense for its employee stock-based compensation based on the fair value of the awards on the date of grant. The fair values of stock options are estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The use of the Black-Scholes option valuation model requires the input of subjective assumptions. Compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, is recognized ratably over the vesting period of the related stock-based compensation award. For transactions in which goods or services are received from non-employees in return for the issuance of equity instruments, the expense is recognized in the period when the goods and services are received at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more readily determinable.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and represents the unit of account in applying the new revenue recognition guidance. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time as services are rendered or at a point in time depending on when the customer obtains control of the promised goods or services. Revenue is recognized when obligations under the terms of a contract with the customer are satisfied; generally, this occurs when services are rendered.
Customer revenue includes revenue received from the sale of integrated cloud solutions and business services and is comprised of monthly recurring charges, usage charges and initial nonrecurring charges. Monthly recurring charges include the fees paid by customers for services. Monthly recurring charges are recognized over the period that the corresponding services are rendered to the customers. Usage charges consist of per-use sensitive fees paid for calls made. Additionally, access charges are comprised of charges paid primarily by interexchange carriers for the origination and termination of interexchange toll and toll-free calls. Usage and access charges are recognized monthly as the services are provided. Initial nonrecurring charges consist primarily of installation charges and revenue derived from sales of communications equipment such as IP phones. The Company recognizes installation and equipment revenue when the installation and setup is complete.
Direct incremental costs of obtaining a contract, consisting of sales commissions, are deferred and amortized over the estimated life of the customer, which is currently 36 months. The Company calculates the estimated life of the customer on an annual basis. The Company classifies deferred commissions as prepaid expenses or other noncurrent assets based on the timing of when it expects to recognize the expense.
Accounts receivable are stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. Management provides for uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to accounts receivable.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company considers the applicability and impact of all Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”). ASUs not discussed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on our consolidated balance sheets or statements of operations.
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force)”. Under this ASU, a customer in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract would look to existing guidance for internal-use software under ASC 350-40 to determine whether implementation costs incurred under such arrangement may be capitalized and subsequently amortized over the periods covered under any applicable renewal options that are reasonably certain to be exercised. In addition, the guidance in this ASU also require the entity to present the expense related to the capitalized implementation costs in the same line item in the statement of income as the fees associated with the hosting element (service) of the arrangement and classify payments for capitalized implementation costs in the statement of cash flows in the same manner as payments made for fees associated with the hosting element. The entity is also required to present the capitalized implementation costs in the statement of financial position in the same line item that a prepayment for the fees of the associated hosting arrangement would be presented. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the amendments in this ASU is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. The amendments in this ASU should be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that this new guidance will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2017, FASB issued ASU No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815). The amendments in Part I of this ASU change the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features. When determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. The amendments also clarify existing disclosure requirements for equity-classified instruments. As a result, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. In April 2018, the Company early adopted this guidance with respect to its then outstanding warrants. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation: Scope of Modification Accounting, to provide guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in ASC 718. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. The Company adopted the amendments effective January 1, 2018. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, which is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize for all leases at the commencement date of a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease measured on a discounted basis, and a right to-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that this new guidance will have on its financial statements and related disclosures. The Company’s current future lease obligations are disclosed in Note 12 and in Note 6 "Leases" in the Form 8-K filed by Fusion with the SEC on May 10, 2018.
In May 2014, the FASB issued new guidance related to revenue recognition, ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU No. 2014-09”), which outlines a comprehensive revenue recognition model that supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance. The new guidance requires a company to recognize revenue upon transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the expected consideration to be received in exchange for those goods or services. ASU No. 2014-09 defines a five-step approach for recognizing revenue: (i) identification of the contract, (ii) identification of the performance obligations, (iii) determination of the transaction price, (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognition of revenue as the entity satisfies the performance obligations. The new criteria for revenue recognition may require a company to use more judgment and make more estimates than under the current guidance. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. Following the adoption, the revenue recognition for the Company’s sales arrangements remained materially consistent with its historical practice.
In March 2016, April 2016 and December 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, Revenue From Contracts with Customers (ASC 606): Principal Versus Agent Considerations, ASU No. 2016-10, Revenue From Contracts with Customers (ASC 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, and ASU No. 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts with Customers, respectively, which further clarify the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations contained in ASU No. 2014-09. In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, narrow-scope improvements and practical expedients which provides clarification on assessing the collectability criterion, presentation of sales taxes, measurement date for non-cash consideration and completed contracts at transition. All of these new standards, which are collectively hereinafter referred to “ASC 606” became effective beginning with the first quarter of 2018. See Note 15 for further information.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef