Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

2. Significant Accounting Policies

2. Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Pro forma financial information  
2. Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and include the consolidated accounts of Fusion and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the year. On an on-going basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, including, but not limited to, those related to recognition of revenue, allowance for doubtful accounts; fair value measurements; asset lives used in computing depreciation and amortization; valuation of intangible assets; accounting for stock options and other equity awards, particularly related to fair value estimates, accounting for income taxes, contingencies, and litigation.  Changes in the facts or circumstances underlying these estimates could result in material changes, and actual results could differ from those estimates. These changes in estimates are recognized in the period they are realized.




Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year’s financial statements in order to conform to the current year’s presentation. The reclassifications had no impact on net earnings previously reported.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


Cash and cash equivalents include cash on deposit and short-term, highly-liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents approximates fair value due to the short period of time to maturity.


Restricted Cash


Restricted cash consists primarily of cash held in reserve pursuant to the terms of financing arrangements and certificates of deposit that serve to collateralize outstanding letters of credit.  Restricted cash is recorded as current or non-current assets in the consolidated balance sheets depending on the duration of the restriction and the purpose for which the restriction exists.


At December 31, 2014, the Company had $1.0 million in restricted cash, which it was required to maintain under the terms of its then existing senior debt facility, and had certificates of deposit collateralizing a letter of credit in the aggregate amount of approximately $164,000. The letter of credit is required as security for one of the Company’s non-cancelable operating leases for office facilities.


Under the terms of the Company’s Amended and Restated Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of December 8, 2015 with Opus bank (the “Amended Credit Facility”) and the Fourth Amended and Restated Securities Purchase Agreement and Security Agreement, dated as of December 8, 2015, with Praesidian Capital Opportunity Find III, LP (the “Fourth Amended SPA”), the Company is no longer required to maintain restricted cash of $1.0 million.  At December 31, 2015, the Company had certificates of deposit collateralizing a letter of credit in the aggregate amount of approximately $165,000.


Revenue Recognition


The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of a sale arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the sales price is fixed and determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company records provisions against revenue for billing adjustments, which are based upon estimates derived from factors that include, but are not limited to, historical results, analysis of credits issued and current economic trends. The provisions for revenue adjustments are recorded as a reduction of revenue when the revenue is recognized. Below is a summary of the provisions against revenue for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014:


    Balance at Beginning of Period     Additions to reserve     Posted Credits and other adjustments     Balance at End of Period  
Year ended December 31, 2015   $ 312,187     $ 1,852,168     $ 1,941,310     $ 223,045  
Year ended December 31, 2014   $ 171,425     $ 1,986,306     $ 1,845,544     $ 312,187  


The Company’s Business Services revenue includes fixed revenue earned from monthly recurring services provided to customers, for whom charges are contracted for over a specified period of time, and from variable usage fees charged to customers that purchase the Company’s Business Services products and services. Revenue recognition commences after the provisioning, testing and acceptance of the service by the customer. The recurring customer charges continue until the expiration of the contract, or until cancellation of the service by the customer. To the extent that payments received from a customer are related to a future period, the payment is recorded as deferred revenue until the service is provided or the usage occurs.


Carrier Services revenue is primarily derived from usage fees charged to other carriers that terminate voice traffic over the Company’s network, and from the monthly recurring and usage fees charged to customers that purchase the Company’s business products and services. Variable revenue is earned based on the length of a call, as measured by the number of minutes of duration. It is recognized upon completion of the call, and is adjusted to reflect the Company’s allowance for billing adjustments. Revenue for each customer is calculated from information received through the Company’s network switches. The Company’s customized software tracks the information from the switches and analyzes the call detail records against stored detailed information about revenue rates. This software provides the Company with the ability to complete a timely and accurate analysis of revenue earned in a period. The Company believes that the nature of this process is such that recorded revenues are unlikely to be revised in future periods.


Cost of Revenues


Cost of revenues for the Company’s Business Services segment consist of fixed expenses which include monthly recurring charges associated with certain platform services purchased from other service providers, monthly recurring costs associated with private line services and the cost of broadband Internet access used to provide service to business customers.


For the Company’s Carrier Services segment, cost of revenues is comprised primarily of costs incurred from other carriers to originate, transport, and terminate voice calls for the Company’s carrier customers.  Thus, the majority of the Company’s cost of revenues for this segment is variable, based upon the number of minutes actually used by the Company’s customers and the destinations they are calling.  Call activity is tracked and analyzed with customized software that analyzes the traffic flowing through the Company’s network switch.  During each period, the call activity is analyzed and an accrual is recorded for the costs associated with minutes not yet invoiced.  This cost accrual is calculated using minutes from the system and the variable cost of revenue based upon predetermined contractual rates.  Fixed expenses reflect the costs associated with connectivity between the Company’s network infrastructure, including its New Jersey switching facility, and certain large carrier customers and vendors.


Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts


Accounts receivable are recorded net of an allowance for doubtful accounts.  On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates accounts receivable and records an allowance for doubtful accounts based on the Company’s history of past write-offs, collections experience and current credit conditions.  Specific customer accounts are written off as uncollectible when collection efforts have been exhausted and payments are not expected to be received.  During the periods presented, the Company has not experienced any significant defaults on its accounts receivable.


Below is a summary of the changes in allowance for doubtful accounts for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (amounts in thousands):


    Balance at Beginning of Period     Additions - charged to expense     Deductions - Write-offs, Payments and Other Adjustments     Balance at End of Period  
Year ended December 31, 2015   $ 245     $ 435     $ 371     $ 309  
Year ended December 31, 2014   $ 381     $ 560     $ 696     $ 245  

Universal service fees charges


In accordance with Federal Communications Commission rules, we are required to contribute to the Federal Universal Service Fund ("USF') for some of our solutions, which we recover from the customers who purchase the services and remit to the Universal Service Administrative Company. We present the USF charges that we collect and remit on a net basis, with both collections from our customers and the amounts we remit, recorded net in Revenues.


Business Combinations


Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. The acquisition method of accounting requires that the purchase price, including the fair value of contingent consideration, of the acquisition be allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed using the fair values determined by management as of the acquisition date. The results of all acquisitions are included in our Consolidated Financial Statements from the date of acquisition.


Goodwill as of the acquisition date, if any, is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions as part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, the Company’s estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company records adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill to the extent the Company identifies adjustments to the preliminary purchase price allocation. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.


All acquisition related transaction costs, such as banking, legal, accounting incurred in connection with an acquisition are expensed as incurred in selling, general and administrative expense.


Debt Related Costs


Costs incurred in raising debt are deferred and amortized as interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the debt.




Goodwill is the excess of the acquisition cost of a business over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired. Goodwill at December 31, 2015 and 2014 was approximately $27.1 million and $10.4 million, respectively.  All of the Company’s goodwill is attributable to its Business Services segment.  


The following table presents the changes in the carrying amounts of goodwill during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014:


Balance at December 31, 2013   $ 5,124,130  
Increase in goodwill - PingTone acquisition     5,175,372  
Adjustment to the preliminary purchase price of Broadvox     97,958  
Balance at December 31, 2014     10,397,460  
Increase in goodwill - RootAxcess acquisition     159,866  
Increase in goodwill - Fidelity acquisition     16,502,971  
Balance at December 31, 2015   $ 27,060,297  

Goodwill is not amortized and is tested for impairment on an annual basis in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year and whenever events or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount.


The impairment test for goodwill uses a two-step approach, which is performed at the reporting unit level.  The Company has determined that its reporting units are its operating segments (see Note 23) since that is the lowest level at which discrete, reliable financial and cash flow information is available.  Step one compares the fair value of the reporting unit (calculated using a market approach and/or a discounted cash flow method) to its carrying value.  If the carrying value exceeds the fair value, there is a potential impairment and step two must be performed.  Step two compares the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill to its implied fair value, which is the fair value of the reporting unit less the fair value of the unit’s assets and liabilities, including identifiable intangible assets.  If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than its carrying amount, an impairment is recognized.


In testing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (more than 50%) that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, it is then required to perform a quantitative impairment test, otherwise no further analysis is required. The Company also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test.


The Company performed qualitative impairment evaluations on its goodwill as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 and determined that there were no indications that goodwill was impaired.


Impairment of Long-Lived Assets


The Company reviews long-lived assets, including intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable.  If an impairment indicator is present, the Company evaluates recoverability by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets.  If the carrying value of the asset exceeds the projected undiscounted cash flows, the Company is required to estimate the fair value of the asset and recognize an impairment charge to the extent that the carrying value of the asset exceeds its estimated fair value.  The Company did not record any impairment charges for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, as there were no indicators of impairment.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:


Asset   Estimated Useful Lives
Network equipment   5  - 7  Years
Furniture and fixtures   3  - 7  Years
Computer equipment and software   3  - 5  Years
Customer premise equipment   2  - 3  Years

Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the term of the associated lease. Maintenance and repairs are recorded as a period expense, while betterments and improvements are capitalized.


The Company capitalizes a portion of its payroll and related costs for the development of software for internal use and amortizes these costs over three years.  During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company capitalized costs pertaining to the development of internally used software in the approximate amount of $911,000 and $783,000, respectively.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


We apply fair value accounting for all financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. We define fair value as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities which are required to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which we would transact and the market-based risk measurements or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, such as risks inherent in valuation techniques, transfer restrictions and credit risk. Fair value is estimated by applying the following hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:


●  Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
●  Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets).
●  Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which fair value is derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs are unobservable, including the Company's own assumptions.


The estimated fair value of financial instruments is determined by the Company using available market information and valuation methodologies considered to be appropriate. At December 31, 2015 and 2014, the carrying value of the Company’s accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short maturities.


Derivative Financial Instruments


For equity and equity indexed instruments with down round provisions, the Company accounts for warrants issued in conjunction with the issuance of debt or equity securities of the Company in accordance with the guidance contained in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”).  For warrant instruments that are not deemed to be indexed to Fusion’s common stock, the Company classifies the warrant instrument as a liability at its fair value and adjusts the instrument to fair value at each reporting period. This liability is subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date until exercised, and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company’s statements of operations (see notes 17 and 18).  The fair values of the warrants have been estimated using option pricing and other valuation models, and the quoted market price of Fusion’s common stock (see notes 17 and 18).


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company recognizes expense for its employee stock-based compensation based on the fair value of the awards that are granted. The fair values of stock options are estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The use of the Black-Scholes option valuation model requires the input of subjective assumptions. Measured compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, is recognized ratably over the vesting period of the related stock-based compensation award.  For  transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received from non-employees in return for the issuance of equity instruments, the expense is recognized in the period when the goods and services are received at  the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is determined to be a more reliable measurement.


Advertising and Marketing


Advertising and marketing expense includes cost for promotional materials and trade show expenses for the marketing of the Company’s products and services.  Advertising and marketing expenses were approximately $511,000 and $211,000 for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.


Income Taxes


The accounting and reporting requirements with respect to income taxes require an asset and liability approach.  Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed for differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities that will result in future taxable or deductible amounts, based on enacted tax laws and rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income.  Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred income tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.


In accordance with U.S. GAAP, the Company is required to determine whether a tax position of the Company is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the applicable taxing authority, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position.  The tax benefit to be recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.  Derecognition of a tax benefit previously recognized could result in the Company recording a tax liability that would reduce net assets.  Based on its analysis, the Company has determined that it has not incurred any liability for unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2015 and 2014.  The Company is subject to income tax examinations by major taxing authorities for all tax years since 2011 and for previous periods as it relates to the Company’s net operating loss carryforward.  


No interest expense or penalties have been recognized as of December 31, 2015 and 2014.  During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company recognized no adjustments for uncertain tax positions.


Factoring of accounts receivable


The Company has a factoring agreement with Prestige Capital Corporation (“Prestige”).  Under the terms of that agreement, Prestige upon receipt and acceptance of each transfer of accounts receivable, advances the Company up to 75% of the net face value of the accounts receivable or 65% of the net face value of any unbilled yet earned amounts associated with the accounts receivable.  The Company pays a discount fee which is deducted from the face value of the accounts receivable. The discount fee is based on the number of days the accounts receivable is outstanding from the date of the advanced. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company recognized discount fees on the transfer of the accounts receivable of approximately $40,000, and $94,000, respectively. These amounts are recorded in Other (expenses) income in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. 


In accordance with ASC 860, ‘Transfers and Servicing’, the Company recognizes the accounts receivable and the associated liability when the accounts receivable are transferred to Prestige, and derecognizes the accounts receivable and the liability upon receipt of collections of the transferred receivables by Prestige.


The Company’s obligations to Prestige are collateralized by a first priority lien on the accounts receivable of the Company’s Carrier Services segment, and by a subordinated security interest on the other assets of the Company’s Carrier Services segment.  Based on the Company’s evaluation of the creditworthiness of the customers whose receivables are transferred under this arrangement, the Company does not believe that there is any significant credit risk related to those receivables.


Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements


In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standard Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-2, Leases, which is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize for all leases at the commencement date a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease measured on a discounted basis, and a right –to-use assets, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that the new guidance will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.


In November 2015, FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes (ASU 2015-17), which simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes by requiring deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet. The updated standard is effective beginning on January 1, 2017 with early application permitted as of the beginning of any interim or annual reporting period. The Company does not expect this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.


In September 2015, FASB issued guidance that eliminates the requirement for an acquirer in a business combination to account for measurement-period adjustments retrospectively. Instead, acquirers must recognize measurement-period adjustments during the period in which they determine the amounts, including the effect on earnings of any amounts they would have recorded in previous periods if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. This guidance is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015.  The Company does not expect this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.


In April 2015, FASB issued guidance requiring an entity to present debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. This guidance is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015. The Company does not expect this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.


In May 2014, FASB issued guidance that outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most recent current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The core principle of the revenue model is that an entity recognizes revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance also specifies the accounting for certain incremental costs of obtaining a contract and costs to fulfill a contract with a customer. Entities have the option of applying either a full retrospective approach to all periods presented or a modified approach that reflects differences prior to the date of adoption as an adjustment to equity. In April 2015, FASB deferred the effective date of this guidance until January 1, 2018 and the Company is currently assessing the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.